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All About Volcanoes

What is a volcano?
A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls.
How are volcanoes formed?
Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth's upper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits. Over time as the volcano continues to erupt, it will get bigger and bigger.
What are the different stages of volcanoes?
Scientists have categorized volcanoes into three main categories: active, dormant, and extinct. An active volcano is one which has recently erupted and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon. A dormant volcano is one which has not erupted in a long time but there is a possibility it can erupt in the future. An extinct volcano is one which has erupted thousands of years ago and there’s no possibility of eruption.
Why do volcanoes erupt?
The Earth's crust is made up of huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. These plates sometimes move. The friction causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions near the edges of the plates. The theory that explains this process is called plate tectonics.
How many volcanoes are there?
There are more than 1500 active volcanoes on the Earth. We currently know of 80 or more which are under the oceans. Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon and Washington.

What are the different types of volcanoes?
Volcanoes are grouped into four types: cinder cones, composite volcanoes, shield volcanoes and lava volcanoes.
What is the difference between lava and magma?
Magma is liquid rock inside a volcano. Lava is liquid rock (magma) that flows out of a volcano. Fresh lava glows red hot to white hot as it flows.
Why does lava take a long time to cool down?
Lava cools slowly because lava is a poor conductor of heat. Lava flows slow down and thicken as they harden.
What is a pyroclastic flow?
A pyroclastic flow is a fluidized mixture of solid to semi-solid fragments and hot, expanding gases that flows down the sides of a volcano. These awesome features are heavier-than-air emulsions that move much like a snow avalanche, except that they are fiercely hot, contain toxic gases, and move at phenomenal, hurricane-force speeds. They are the most deadly of all volcanic phenomena.
What is the largest active volcano?
The world's largest, active volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii, where famous coffee is grown in the rich volcanic soils. Mauna Loa is 13,677 feet above sea level. From its base below sea level to its summit, Mauna Loa is taller than Mount Everest.

In This Issue

  • Role Of Calcium In Familial Alzheimer's Disease Clarified, Pointing To New Therapeutics
  • Atrial Fibrillation Patients At Higher Risk Of Dementia When Meds Out Of Range
  • Responsibilities Shift For Alzheimer's Caregivers
  • Young Blood: Stanford Researchers Hope Plasma Injections From The Young Rejuvenate Alzheimer's Patients
  • Alzheimer's Store Featured Product
  • Recipe Of The Week
  • Newsletter Promotions
  • Events Calendar
  • Trivia Questions
  • Information On Clinical Studies

The Volcano

by Michael; Liverpool College

Quietly it rumbles,

Slowly it rumbles,
Showing it’s anger it
Throws out its fire.
Erupting in a temper of flames,
And balls of fire.
It’s rivers of molten lava,
Meander down the hillside,
Making people run and scream,
Out of it’s path.
The anger subsides.
The volcano goes quiet.
All that is left is the
Smoldering ash and rocky shapes

Did You Know:

Well into the Middle Ages, many believed volcanoes were entrances into the fiery underworld.

Many scientists believe that all the water on the earth was originally vented into the atmosphere by volcanoes.

The most dangerous volcano today is Popocatépetl, nicknamed El Popo, which is just 33 miles from Mexico City. El Popo is still active, sending thousands of tons of gas and ash into the air each year.

In Japan, “baths” in warm volcanic sand are believed to cure many illnesses.

Editorial Note: Healthcare Products LLC reviews the news wires looking for press releases and current articles relating to Alzheimer's and dementia. We write a brief description of each article and by clicking on its heading will bring you to the originally written story ...hope you enjoy The Alzheimer's News...

Role Of Calcium In Familial Alzheimer's Disease Clarified, Pointing To New Therapeutics

(Source: Science Daily) - In 2008 researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania showed that mutations in two proteins associated with familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) disrupt the flow of calcium ions within neurons. The two proteins interact with a calcium release channel in an intracellular compartment. Mutant forms of these proteins that cause FAD, but not the normal proteins, result in exaggerated calcium signaling in the cell.

Now, the same team, led by J. Kevin Foskett, PhD, chair of Physiology, and a graduate student, Dustin Shilling, has found that suppressing the hyperactivity of the calcium channels alleviated FAD-like symptoms in mice models of the disease. Their findings appear this week in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Current therapies for Alzheimer's include drugs that treat the symptoms of cognitive loss and dementia, and drugs that address the pathology of Alzheimer's are experimental. These new observations suggest that approaches based on modulating calcium signaling could be explored, says Foskett.

The two proteins, called PS1 and PS2 (presenilin 1 and 2), interact with a calcium release channel, the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutant PS1 and PS2 increase the activity of the IP3R, in turn increasing calcium levels in the cell.

Responsibilities Shift For Alzheimer's Caregivers

(Source: My SunCoast) - The Alzheimer’s Association reports the number of women age 65 and older at risk of getting Alzheimer's disease in their lifetime is 1 in 6, compared with their male counter parts at 1 in 11.

This new information may shift caregiving responsibilities to men and affect those diagnosed.

The disease that affects more than 5 million lives in the U.S. takes a different toll on men. “Well, when a man has Alzheimer's disease one of the challenges is that he has to learn to give up control, and that's often very difficult. If you been used to making decisions, if you’ve been used to deciding how the money is spent, if you've been used to driving,” says Dr. Bill Haley of USF.

These are things you will no longer be able to do says Dr. Haley. That said, a woman's estimated lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer's at age 65 is 1 in 6, compared with men at nearly 1 in 11.

“It's becoming more and more prevalent for a man to be a caregiver, says Max Moore. At age 20, Moore found himself in the unlikely position of caregiver for both grandparents. His grandmother suffered a dementia. He says as caregivers, men are different. “In their world, they're alone in this, they can’t relate to their friend who they'll go out on the golf course with who is not in that situation,” says Moore.

Alan Silverglat cared for his mother for five years. He says it was emotionally challenging. “The person who had given birth to me and had given care to me, all of a sudden roles had reversed and it was difficult for both of us to accept.”

Atrial Fibrillation Patients At Higher Risk Of Dementia When Meds Out Of Range

(Source: Medical News Today) - A new study by researchers at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute in Salt Lake City has found that atrial fibrillation patients who are on blood thinning medications are at higher risk of developing dementia if their doses are not in the optimal recommended range.

The study of more than 2,600 AFib patients found they are significantly more likely to develop dementia when using medicines to prevent blood clots, such as warfarin, when their dosing is too high or too low for an extended period of time.

Findings from the study were presented at the 2014 Annual Heart Rhythm Society Scientific Session in San Francisco.

In the United States, nearly one in 10 people, or about 2.7 million Americans, develop AFib in their lifetimes. Atrial fibrillation is a quivering or irregular heartbeat that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

Physicians try to achieve an international normalized ratio (a test used to learn how fast the blood clots) of two to three, which is within the therapeutic range, or the safety range. Typically, dosages higher than the therapeutic range can increase the risk of bleeding. If the dose is lower than the therapeutic range, it can increase risk of blood clots forming.

Young Blood: Stanford Researchers Hope Plasma Injections From The Young Rejuvenate Alzheimer's Patients

(Source: San Francisco Business Times) - What if a few shots of a young person's plasma could halt Alzheimer’s disease in an older person?

How beautifully simple. After all, hospitals and clinics for decades have infused hemophiliacs, patients with immune system disorders or those with traumatic injuries with the yellowish liquid spun out of fresh blood and made up of water, hundreds of proteins, hormones, clotting factors and the like.

The Stanford University lab of Tony Wyss-Coray, a professor of neurology and neurological sciences, is pursuing fresh evidence that the plasma of young people may carry factors that disappear as we age and make us susceptible to Alzheimer’s and other conditions. Giving that "young" plasma to older patients may transport those factors, Wyss-Coray said, and rejuvenate the brains of Alzheimer's patients.

Results of a study of mice by Wyss-Coray’s lab were published online Sunday in the journal Nature Medicine. It is important because most previous research has focused on the impact that these plasma infusions have had on the regeneration of muscle and other tissue; Wyss-Coray’s lab not only looked at the physical changes in the brains of old mice given blood from young mice but how their behavior changed.

The Alzheimer's Store Featured Product!

Item #0197 Chair & Mattress Alarm Mat With Wireless Remote

One problem frequently encountered by caregivers is that patients may try to get out of bed alone, even though they lack the strength or coordination to do so. Similarly, patients with dementia may try to perform kitchen tasks, such as cooking or slicing foods, that they not capable of doing in a safe manner. An Alzheimer's alarm can alert the caregiver to the patient's risky behavior and help curb the dangers posed by wandering.

Recipe Of The Week
Seems like a lot of work, but it was prepped in 15 minutes and cooked for 30 minutes ~ so delicious!! - Recipe From Katrina-Runs.Com
Stuffed Zucchini


4 large zucchini, sliced lengthwise and middle scooped out and reserved.
3/4 lb lean ground beef
1/2 cup chopped red/yellow/green peppers in any combination
1/2 cup onion, diced
1/3 cup of water
1 Tablespoon taco seasoning
1/2 cup shredded cheddar
1/2 cup of mascarpone cheese (cream cheese is excellent substitute)
1/4 cup of parsley, chopped
1/2 cup of mozzarella cheese, shredded
1 green onion, sliced thin


1. Brown beef, peppers, onions and the middle part of the zucchini that was scooped out. Leave “boats” on a sprayed sheet pan.
2. Add taco seasoning and water. Stir and simmer a few minutes until seasoning is equally distributed.
3. In a large bowl, add beef, cheddar, mascarpone, parsley. Mix well.
4. Spoon mixture into each zucchini boat.
5. Bake 400* for 30 minutes. If zucchini is not done, return to oven and check after 10 more minutes.
6. Remove, sprinkle mozzarella cheese and return to oven. Turn heat off. Cheese will melt in 3-5 minutes. Top with green onions and serve.

Newsletter Promotions - Enjoy 15% Off Of The Following Products..

Available Only To Newsletter Subscribers...

Events Calendar: (if you would like to list your upcoming event, email us at contact@alzstore.com)

May 19th-22nd - ALFA Conference & Expo / Phoenix, AZ (Alzstore will be there~be sure to visit our booth!)

May 19th - 9:30 am-6:30 pm - Alzheimer's Awareness Talk / Madison, AL

May 20th - 1:30-2:30 pm - Alzheimer's Caregivers Support Group / Ottawa, IL

May 21st - 1:30 pm-3:30 pm - Middle Stages Of Alzheimer's / Oconto Falls, WI

May 22nd - 3:30-4:30 pm - Alzheimer's Support Group / Sacramento, CA

May 23rd - 1:00-2:30 pm - Gerry Sandusky Book Signing to benefit Alzheimer's Association / Hunt Valley, MD

May 30th - 8:30 am-4:45 pm - Alzheimer's Conference / Greenville, NC


Take a guess at these trivia questions ..answers will be posted in next week's newsletter

1. Where did the word volcano originate from?

2. What igneous volcanic rock can float in water, can be used as an abrasive and is sometimes used in beauty salons for removing dry skin?

3. Which species of bird uses heat given out by warm volcanic sand to incubate its large eggs? -when the eggs hatch, they burrow their way to the surface of the sand

**email your answers to contact@alzstore.com & include your name & address to be in the running for a free gift! Winner will be chosen at random at the beginning of each month... Thank you for participating in our trivia challenge!!

Answers to last week's trivia; Roman Holiday / Susy / My Fair Lady


*NeuroAD - This cutting-edge study involves non-invasive, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and cognitive exercises in the NeuroAD chair. The device sends magnetic waves into the brain. This stimulation combined with cognitive exercises is expected to result in a measurable cognitive improvement after just a few weeks of treatment. / Learn more...

* Anavex Plus - Anavex plans to initiate clinical trials with ANAVEX PLUS for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. ANAVEX PLUS is the Company's proprietary compound ANAVEX 2-73 administered in combination with donepezil, the generic version of Aricept®. Donepezil's combination with a Sigma 1 receptor agonist (ANAVEX 2-73) is believed to enhance efficacy. The trials will consist of a prospective, multicenter, two-part study involving up to 300 mild-to-moderate AD patients. / Learn more...

* NOBLE is a clinical study to evaluate an investigational drug for patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Participants will receive the study drug or a placebo. During this study, if you are already taking Aricept or Namenda, you will probably continue to take it along with the study drug or placebo. Studies already done have shown that this investigational drug appears safe. It may work by protecting brain cells which would result in improved memory. But, this has not been proven yet. / Learn more...

* SNIFF - The purpose of the SNIFF study is to find out whether a type of insulin, when administered as a nasal spray, improves memory in adults with a mild memory impairment or Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The rationale behind the study is growing evidence that insulin carries out multiple functions in the brain and that poor regulation of insulin may contribute to the development of AD. Insulin resistance, reduced cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels, and reduced brain insulin signals have been found in AD patients, suggesting that a therapy aimed at correcting these deficiencies may be beneficial. / Learn more...

* LymPro - a blood-based test for AD, should be launched as a laboratory-developed test (LDT) in the US by the end of the year. The test assesses the rate at which lymphocytes (white blood cells) can proliferate (based on CD69 expression) as studies indicate the regulation of lymphocyte replication is impaired in patients with AD. / Learn more...

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